When sailing upwind the fore sail is
a flat and smaller Genoa and the fluid stream usually follows the sail
surfaces. When sailing downwind the fore sails are the lighter, bigger
and more deformable Gennaker and spinnaker and the fluid stream often
shows large vortices and is highly turbulent. Thus, a fluid-structure
interaction analysis on sails is much more complicated in the downwind
case and must be modeled by a system of equations involving both the
full Navier-Stokes equations for air and suitable membrane equations
that properly describe the sail structures.

ACM ag Stefano Gattini

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